The Department of Archaeology commenced its duties 1890. However, the ground-work related to archaeological activities took place many years before, during the governance of Sir Hercules Robinson. In 1868, seven years after the initiation of a archaeological survey in India, the Ceylon Government (now Sri Lanka), appointed a Committee to obtain information regarding the ancient architectural works of Ceylon. In 1871, an excellent series of photographs of the principle structures of Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa was taken with the financial and other assistance provided by the Government of the Island.
In the year 1873, Governor Sir William Gregory issued instructions for a complete survey to be undertaken. Therefore, a site survey of ancient Anuradhapura began during this year. The pioneering work carried out by J.G. Smither, titled “Architectural Remains of Anuradhapura”, comprising information of dagabas and certain other ruined structures, was released in 1894.
Between 1875-1879 a partial search of ancient inscriptions and original records was carried out and they were collected under Government Authority, by Professor P. Goldschmidt who became the founder of Sinhalese Epigraphy. E. Muller and Maha Mudaliyar. L.W. de Zoysa continued this work.
During the years 1884-1886, Mr. Burrows (of Ceylon Civil Service) was assigned the responsibility of supervising the archaeological matters related to monuments and other antiquities of Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa. The thick jungle had to be cleared. Old roads were restored. New roads were constructed. Schemes for further excavations were drawn up. Exploration was encouraged by supplying information regarding archaeological sites and objects. A local Museum was opened to house the “Curios” (then called) and preserve the sculptures and paintings that had escaped destruction by the ravages of time and the rapacious hands of vandals.
Much work had been done thereafter by way of preliminary investigations. On the 07th of July, 1890, Sir Arthur Gordon, then Governor of Ceylon, directed Mr. H.C.P. Bell (of Ceylon Civil Service) to commence archaeological operations of the North Central Province. This marked the official birthday of scientific archaeology in the Island.
Mr. H.C.P. Bell commenced his duties by dividing the field of Archaeology into various sections. However, his main duties dealt with exploration. Thus the archaeological excavations revealed artefacts of exceptional value. Attention continued to be paid to rock inscriptions as well as the study of rock inscriptions. Explorations undertaken at Sigiriya and Polonnaruwa yielded results of exceptional interest. The discovery of murals in 1897 at Sigiriya and Polonnaruwa proved most rewarding. In 1898, a Commission was appointed to consider the whole field of Archaeological activities.
Archaeological activities of Sri Lanka, can be categorized into two periods of time. The initial period is the Colonial period whilst the latter is the Independent period. The Colonial period was administered by British officers where as the Independent period was managed and administered by Sri Lankans. The first Sri Lankan to be appointed the head of the Department was Dr. S. Paranavithana.
The list of Heads of the Department of Archaeology including the present head is as follows;
|Year||Name of the Officer|
|1884-1886||Mr. S.M. Burrows|
|1890-1892||Mr. H.C.P. Bell|
|1892||Mr. Levers (Acting)|
|1893-1912||Mr. H.C.P. Bell|
|1912-1913||Mr. R. Ayrton|
|1913-1914||Mr. B. Constantine (Acting)|
|1914-1918||Mr. H. R. Freeman (Acting)|
|1918-1920||Mr. F.G. Tyrrel (Acting)|
|1920-1921||Mr. A.W. Seymour (Acting)|
|1921-1922||Mr. G.F.R. Browning (Acting)|
|1922-1923||Mr. A.M. Hocart|
|1923-1924||Mr. A.M. Hocart||Mr. F. Bartlett (Acting)|
|1924-1925||Mr. M. Wedderburn (Acting)||Mr. E.R. Sudbury (Acting)|
|1925-1927||Mr. A.M. Hocart|
|1927-1928||Mr. E.T. Dyson (Acting)|
|1928-1929||Mr. C.F. Winzer (Acting)|
||Mr. J. Pearson (Acting)|
||Mr. C.F. Winzer (Acting)|
||Mr. S. Paranavitana (Acting)|
|1934-1939||Mr. A.H. Longhurst|
|1940-1956||Dr. S. Paranavitana|
|1956-1967||Dr. C.E. Godakumbura|
|1967-1979||Dr. R.H. de Silva|
|1979-1983||Dr. Saddhamangala Karunarathna|
|1983-1990||Dr. Roland Silva|
|1990-1992||Mr. M.H. Sirisoma|
|1992-2001||Dr. S.U. Deraniyagala|
||Dr. W.H. Wijayapala|
|2004 up to date||Dr. Senerath Dissanayake
Currently the Department of Archaeology faces greater and challenging responsibilities than ever before whilst archaeology has become a well developed scientific discipline based on advanced technological methods. Sri Lanka despite the fact of being a tiny speck of an island in the Indian Ocean, is a land of prestige and glory, as she boasts of over two hundred and fifty thousand archaeological sites and a legacy of innumerable antiquities. According to the Antiquities Ordinance, No. 9 of 1940 and its Amendment No. 24 of 1998, the protection of this heritage is the sole responsibility of the Director General of Archaeology. No organization or other authority can deny the responsibility held by him.